CANADA AND CARPAIAN BASIN Canada and Carpathian-basin assure 75% of Earth’s total mineral water deposit. Europe is the homeland of mineral water springs. There aren’t any regions on Earth which is so rich in mineral waters and this treasure isn’t used so intensively nowhere on Earth.


    WATER AND LIFE Why am I drinking natural mineral water? Therefore it is good for me. Water is indispensable for human’s general state of health. Thirst is such a mechanism that warns us, our body starts becoming dry. It is better we drink when we are not thirsty yet. Our body loses 2.6 litres water so we must replace this quantity.


    THE BLUE PLANET Looking down from space Earth is blue so it is called "blue planet". It is due to water on its surface and the atmosphere. The biggest contiguous water surface is formed by oceans and seas. Great deal of frozen water is stored in the poles as well as snow and ice in mountain ranges.


    CUSTOMER'S MANNER Customers’ decision always postulates some kind of evaluation where they strive after maximizing the usefulness. It is complex and useful properties of a product or service moreover it is the satisfaction which is gained by consuming a product/service.

    Is every bottled water the same?

    Minerals in the mineral waters

    Main compositions of mineral waters:

    Water and lifeOur body is not able to produce either vitamins or minerals so we must ingest them with consuming food and at last but not at least natural mineral water or spring water. One of the most important constituent of our body is the water. We have to drink at least 2.5 litres water a day to keep our internal balance.

    The clean origin natural mineral water is the most suitable for satisfying our biological water demands. It is made up of several minerals and trace elements which are workable and by our organism.

    The most essential trace elements of mineral water are Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium and Sodium. Beside them Chlorine (chloride ion), Iron, Zinc, Phosphorus (phosphorus ion), Fluorine (fluoride ion), Iodine (iodide ion), Silicon (silicate ion) can be found.

    Only the main components are written on the side of bottles but some special mineral waters exist which consist of more quantity from one of above mentioned materials so they are consumed by therapeutic goals.  


    Is every bottled water the same?

    However all bottled water seems to be albeit as a matter of fact all mineral waters and spring waters have unique flavour which depends on mineral content of water giving layer. Consumers have opportunities to choose different, sparkling on still mineral water.

    More than 3000 mineral water brands are on the market around the world.

    Lots of bottled "mineral water" doesn't meet mineral water demands (their inscription is wrong) because they can be considered as spring water.

    Some, water which is enriched with minerals and other materials artificially, are produced but if we insist on the original definition they are not natural mineral waters.

    The spring water:
    It is very precious and clean food product too. It must meet the same strict microbiological requirements than mineral water. It has to be bottled on the place of origin and treat it only those licensed procedures which are used on mineral water. It is forbidden to add other materials except carbon-dioxide. Contemporaneously its composition doesn't have to be the same and it is not necessary to recognised officially.

    Enriched and flavoured waters :
    Their name can't be "water" only "natural mineral water or spring water" it depends on what water it is made from. The aim of this rule is that these products not to be mistakable with natural mineral water or spring water. These drinks are produced artificially. It means they are enriched with permitted additives mostly carbon-dioxide and/or flavoured different aromas

    By the rights of their composition we classify mineral water to following types:

      1. little mineral content: less than 500 mg/l
      2. very little mineral content: less than 50 mg/l
      3. rich in mineral content: more than 1500 mg/l
      4. sulphate mineral water: sulphate content is more than 200 mg/l
      5. Chloride mineral water: chloride content is more than 200 mg/l
      6. Calcium mineral water: Calcium content is more than 150 mg/l
      7. Magnesium mineral water: Magnesium content is more than 50 mg/l
      8. Fluoride mineral water: Fluoride content is more than 1 mg/l
      9. Iron mineral water: Iron content is more than 1 mg/l
      10. free Carbon-dioxide mineral water: Free Carbon-dioxide content is more than 25 mg/l
      11. Sodium mineral water: Sodium content is more than 200 mg/l
      12. Little Sodium content: Sodium content is less than 20 mg/l


    Differently about composition and mineral quantity of natural mineral water:

    We must be aware of the meaning when mineral water consists of "many" or "little" minerals or cations, anions. Let's have look the Calcium. According to the order for natural mineral water that it might be named as Calcium content water which Calcium content is more than 150 mg/l. Recommended daily allowance (RDA) of Calcium is 800 mg. If we want to get into this quantity to our body we must drink at least 5-6 litres of large Calcium content water a day. It is very unreal. Certainly other food products have Calcium content so it isn't necessary to drink such a big quantity of water. If we drink 1 – 1.5 litres water a day, that all of us should drink, 150 – 225 mg Calcium goes into our body. It is 25 % of RDA.

    The information is totally false that consuming water, which contains too many minerals is not healthy even harmful because too many minerals deposit in our organism. On the contrary drinking mineral water is not enough to cover our daily requirements so we can consume other food products which have mineral content. Let's have a look Sodium. It is not true that it is harmful because it is necessary to regulate our fluid system as well as maintain acid-base balance and osmotic pressure. RDA of Sodium is 2,000 mg that means we must drink 10 litres high Sodium content (at least 200 mg/l) water. It is only the recommended quantity not the daily allowable or particularly health risk. Sodium content of the most mineral water is much less under 100 mg/l. As a matter of course Sodium in salt form gets into our body and its excessive intake harmful indeed especially people who suffer from cardio vascular diseases or high blood pressure.

    Therefore these people don't consume high Sodium content mineral water. Instead they drink low content, less than 20 mg/l water. Healthy people can drink any of mineral water because harmful quantity salt doesn't get into their body even if they add salt to the food. We have to drink great deal of water to get into equal quantity of salt with a portion of paprika potato.

    Minerals in natural mineral waters:

    watermeloneThe pure origin mineral water is the most appropriate for appeasing our biological water demand. It has good taste excellent for our thirst moreover from point of nutrition physiologically it contains crucial materials and trace elements. It is workable and utilizable for human body. It contains in dissolved form – as human body could use better – essential materials. Thus when we drink mineral water we insure a part of our body's mineral necessity. Mineral metabolism is important part of biological processes: prevent electrolyte system disorder and other part of mineral have similar role than vitamins. According to their characteristic mineral waters are Calcium-, Magnesium-, Sodium-hydrogen-carbonated, Chloride-, Sulphate waters and their variations. The newly explored and bottled waters' composition, total mineral content, their tastes are changing between wide range limitations. Nowadays waters which total mineral content is about 700 mg/l are getting more popular.

    Concerning mineral content of natural mineral waters a question is raised many times. Is it A LOT or LITTLE? The simplest answer is everything is relative but natural mineral water itself takes the answer for A LOT question. We already know the answer but that water can be named as natural mineral water which is naturally originated from subsurface protected layers and it can be drunk boundlessly. We can reckon easily the taken mineral quantity compare to our daily necessities if the quantities of significant minerals are readable on the label. So we help you to be familiar with in order to make decision that which water is the most appropriate for you. Don't forget that fact we intake pure and natural material into our body with water so it might be drunk without limitations! Let's have some most frequent materials in our waters.

    Macro elements:

    Those elements which can be found more than 50 mg/ body mass in our body, elements are less than above mentioned quantity are micro elements.

    Calcium (Ca)

    drinking waterIt is the biggest quantity element which participates in building our body (1200 – 1500 mg). 99% of Calcium content is in bones and teeth. It is located in ionic form and bond to proteins in our body fluids and tissues. It is enzyme activator in blood coagulation in osteogenesis. It is involved in regulating nerve- and muscle irritableness as well as several physiological processes. It is antagonist of Potassium, their optimal proportion is K:Ca = 1:2 . Our body's daily necessity is 800 – 1000 mg. Absorption from intestines is wrong, vitamin D and protein has effect for Calcium. Calcium-Magnesium-hydrogen-carbonated waters are lime supplementary in our nutriments for instance during pregnancy and lactation. In case of spasticity and protein-metabolism disorder it has beneficial effect. As regards mineral waters' characteristic Calcium is significant element of nearly all of our mineral waters. Our waters' Calcium content is between 30 – 280 mg so the highest quantity covers 35 % of daily necessity.

    Potassium (K)

    It is the Earth's most frequent element but its incidence rate is little in sea waters and mineral waters. Characteristic K/Na proportion is in mineral waters is displaced to Sodium. The human body has more Potassium (148g) than Sodium. Mainly it is located in cells. Potassium is antagonist of Sodium and Calcium. It regulates the osmosis pressure within cells. It has role to maintain nerve irritation, acid-base balance as well as protein and glycogen synthesis. In order to assure the daily quantity 3.5 g Potassium is enough. It crucial part of cells and it needs for muscle work and heart's work. It takes part to regulate the body's liquid system. In case of Potassium shortage symptoms are myasthenia, cramps, falling blood pressure, vascular disorder, deficiency of peristalsis, and kidneys functional disorder. Its daily necessity is 3.0 – 3.5 g. Potassium content of our mineral waters is 0 – 15.3 mg/l so the highest value is satisfy 0.44 % of daily necessity.

    Magnesium (Mg)

    It is important biogenic element. Our body is made up of 20 – 28 g and its 66% is in bones. Other parts are located in muscles, liver, cells of nerve system and blood. It has influence on muscle work. It is part of some enzymes. Its shortage causes arteriosclerosis indirectly. Blood pressure of physique is ideal under the proportion (Na+Ca)/(K+Mg) = 1. It is essential in protein and carbohydrate metabolism and it is required for muscles working included myocardium. It plays relevant role to build bones and to grow them. In case of Magnesium shortage symptoms are irritation, insomnia, concentration difficulties, muscle cramp. Its daily necessity is 300 – 350 mg but under circumstances of exhausting labour work or pregnancy and lactation is 451 mg. Magnesium content of our mineral waters is between 13 – 62 mg/l so the highest value covers only 18 % of daily necessity if we drink 1 litre mineral water.

    Sodium (Na)


    It regulates osmosis pressure and water balance and it can be found in beyond cell body fluids. It is indispensable for some transport processes. It helps to absorb the glucose. An adult human body contains 100 g Sodium. We consume NaCl each day. Consuming more than 5 – 7 g is not recommended. In case of extreme intake the water distribution changes. Due to increasing irregular Sodium concentrate cells swollen so it results oedema. On the other hand it increases the volume of circulating blood (high blood pressure) and overcharges the kidneys significantly. The daily recommended Sodium intake is 2 g (adult), 0.5 – 0.9 g (child). The alkali-hydrogen-carbonate mineral waters are useful they have beneficial results in case of hyperacidity. It has antispasmodic effect in lukewarm temperature. It is worthy to pay attention don't put too much salt in our food. Sodium content of our mineral water is between 4 – 186 mg/l so the highest value can cover only 10 % of daily necessity if we drink 1 litre natural mineral water. Most of our mineral water has about 30 mg/l Sodium.

    Chlorine (Cl)

    It can be found in seawater in the greatest proportion which is result of submarine volcanos eruption. Greater Chloride content of mineral water refers to seawater residue. It is 0.5 % of human body that is 100 – 110 g. It is located in gastric acid and spinal fluid. Chlorine – together with Sodium and Potassium – regulates the water system and maintains acid-base balance. The daily necessary quantity is 3 g. Chloride ion absorption is quick and the surplus leaves our organism with urine fast. Mostly it is found in in bound form to Sodium or Potassium. Together with hydrogen in stomach it forms gastric acid. Usually we might intake enough quantity with common salt. Chlorine content of our mineral water is between 0 – 176 mg/l so the highest value can cover only 5.9 % of daily necessity if drink one litre mineral water. Most of our mineral water has 0 – 70 mg/l Cl content.

    periodic tableHydrogen-carbonate

    It belongs to Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ in water. Its quantity connects to the dissolved CO2 in water. It plays essential role to maintain acid-base balance in our organism. It has salutary effect to digestive system: stimulate salivary- and gastric acid secretion, ventricle movement increase and ventricle defecation is getting faster. It cleans urine ways and prevents forming kidney calculus.

    Phosphor (P)

    Our body contains Phosphor it is in significant quantity in bones, teeth as well as bonded to blood plasma. It is one part of energy producing enzymes. It takes part in carbo-hydrate metabolism processes. The Ca:P rate is important which is 1:1 in adults. Together with Calcium it is crucial part of building bones and teeth. RDA is 600 – 800 mg/day. In case of Phosphor shortage mental and physical productivity decrease but it is trivial. If we intake too much our kidneys void urine. Phosphor is located mineral waters as Phosphor ion. It is not typical in our mineral waters.

    Micro elements:
    They have crucial importance for enzymes functioning.

    Fluoride (F): It is widespread in magmatic stones. Its salt with Calcium-phosphate is relevant component of bones and teeth. Fluoride can be found in our skin as well. Our organism contains 2.5 – 3.5 mg. Its RDA is 1.5 mg. Its shortage can cause caries and growth disorder. Its overdosage is harmful because it makes dental enamel spotted and bones indurate.

    Iron (Fe): Its main task is to transport Oxygen, Carbon-dioxide and electrons. Animal proteins and vitamin C increases its absorption and tannic acid and phitin acid in crops impede its absorption. Its shortage can cause anaemia, weakness, paleness and fatigability. Its daily necessity: women 15 – 18 mg, men 12 mg.

    elementsIodine (I): It is significant micro element regarding thyrogenous function. It is indispensable concerning embryo growing inside womb. Its shortage causes thyroid disorder.

    Lithium (Li): It is most likely to have effect on human physic mood. Its shortage can cause cardio vascular diseases.

    Manganese (Mn): It participates in protein and fat metabolism as well as bones and interstitial tissue building.

    Silicon (Si): It takes part in building bones and interstitial tissues and forming interstitial tissues and cartilages.

    Zinc (Zn): It is component of several enzymes and insulin. It participates in protein and carbohydrate metabolism. It plays a role in trauma recovery and our body's immune system functions. Its shortage causes disorder in above mentioned and palpable decrease of appetite and sense of taste.

    Copper (Cu)): It is component of several enzymes which participate in oxidation-reduction processes and it has role in elastin, collagen and phospholipid synthesis. Its daily necessity is 1.5 – 5 mg which is covered by various diets. 

    Sulphate: IIt is component of all protein and some enzymes and it has effect on hair, nail strength.



    Bottled waters are subjected to microbiological examination. We focus on their clearness during these examinations. When mineral waters are being exploited they must be devoid of pollution originally.

    At the place of exploit the colony number is not allowed to bigger than 20/ml measured on 20 – 22°C within 72 hours, examined on agar-agar or agar-gelatine culture, and 5/ml measured on 37°C within 24 hours. These numbers are guide numbers not the allowed biggest concentrations.

    Following bottling the biggest total colony number can't be more than 100/ml measured on 20 – 22°C within 72 hours, examined on agar-agar or agar-gelatine culture and 20/ml on 37°C within 24 hours, examined on agar-agar culture. The total colony number must be measured within 12 hours subsequently the bottling and water must be held on 4°C +/- 1°C

    Several examinations were made after 1 – 2 month exploiting and bottling the mineral water.

    Among examined products high colony number were experienced but it was never be zero at all. Experts explained difference between measured results during bottling and months later with technological deficiency. According to compulsory strict regulations the closed system exploiting and bottling production lines comply with technical requirements but lack of mandatory daily cleaning or their inadequate being might cause bacterial pollution in bottled waters.

    The most dangerous bacterial polluters (coliform, Escherichia coli, enterococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and sulphite reductive sporogenous) were neither in any of water samples nor during bottling the water. That can be told the high bacteria colony number itself doesn't mean health risk. According to many experts proportion of health risk may depend on the consumer's health condition, age as well as beyond of over-consuming.

    Is it rumour or reality?

    We can read, hear many interesting and astonishing articles concerning natural mineral water. Our task is to give you authentic and comprehensive information. So we would like to emphasize some questions and important topics below:
    Is bottled water waste of money? No, it isn't! Originally clean means it is forbidden to add preservatives to water, it mustn't be disinfected because it is clear without these processes. It is ensured by bottling but bottling technology must be paid. The bottled water is safe and healthy and consumers have right to get bottled water when they are en route, they're in restaurants even at home. Mineral waters provide a natural, refreshing and convenient possibility and they are sold in different prices.
    man in dessertIs it true that the intemperate mineral water consuming is harmful? No, it isn't! Only that water might be named "natural mineral water" which, on the basis of its origin, composition, its effect to health – even in great deal of quantity – can be drunk without limitations. If its consuming can mean any kind of risk it mustn't be called as mineral water. So mineral waters may be selected by the right of their mineral composition and mineral quantity.
    Is it true, that unselected and intemperate mineral water consuming has such effect which is contradictory with consumers' purpose? No, it isn't!
    Neither extreme great quantity nor unbounded mineral water consuming is harmful for consumers so it's not harmful for health. It doesn't cause surplus Fluoride intake, Sodium overdosing, forming kidney stones etc.
    Is it true, that medicinal water may be drunk under medical attendance? Yes, it is! Composition of waters is significantly different from mineral waters' composition – that's why they have medicinal effect. Their mineral content is more than tenfold as mineral waters' so they can be drunk only in limited, recommended quantity by doctor. Natural mineral water is a food product but medicinal water has curative effect.
    Is it true, that cleaned water is healthier than natural mineral water? No, it isn't! As I mentioned earlier natural mineral water is originally clean whilst the cleaned water became clean due to some clarifying process. The natural mineral water is genuine while cleaned water is treated. Neither natural mineral water nor cleaned water contain harmful materials and pathogens but in clarifying water – depend on clarifying process – has less useful material. After clarifying we won't define precisely what kind of water we have from what water.

    What sort of mineral water shall I choose?

    Mineral content influences taste and salutary effect of water. The proper salt content aka ahydrous material content and quantity of Calcium, Magnesium are essential. Too much Sodium might be harmful in case of high blood pressure. If Fluorine content is higher than 2.5 mg/l it has to be displayed in label that consuming is not recommended under age of 7 years. Mineral water can classify three main groups: low (less than 500 mg/l), medium (500 – 1500 mg/l) and high (more than 1500 mg/l) mineral content. If we drink high mineral content water continuously we overcharge kidneys so it is worthy to amplify the liquid intake with other mineral water. Sparkling or still? Alkalizing is not absolutely necessary but in order to preserve our health it had better to drink still water. Still water has to be stored in cool place and after opening it should be drunk within 1 – 2 days. 


    It is better we drink when we are not thirsty yet. Our body loses 2.6 litres water so we must replace this quantity.
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    It is better we drink when we are not thirsty yet. Our body loses 2.6 litres water so we must replace this quantity.
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    Water is our existence we are inseparable because there is no life without water.
    Average 60 – 65% of human body is water which can be found partly inside cells and partly outside. When we are getting older proportion of water is reducing. Baby organism contains 80%, adult 60%, elder people 50 % water.


    The reasons of thirst are increased water loss which can be caused by vomiting, diarrhoea, perspiration and increased salt (NaCl) taking. If human body’s water level decreases dramatically, serious symptoms will show up.


    Water is essential factor of life on Earth. 
    Without water there is no life and it has crucial importance for humans: 
    from point of hygiene, health care, and production

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