Swallow subsurface waters

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Dampness of soil:

Water which fills gaps in sole particles, located in three-phase-zone between surface and water table, is named dampness of soil. Water, percolates from the surface, sticks sole particles pellicularly and doesn’t go deeper (capillary force) despite gravity. Sole air fill gaps among sole particles in this level (three phase system: stone particle, sole air, dampness of soil)

Water table:

Ground WaterWater table is that part of sweet water resources which is located above the upper impermeable layer. It comes from surface waters such as precipitation, rivers, lakes percolates down and fills gaps in sole particles. We call the upper level of these water mass as water table level. Its level depends on precipitation, temperature and pressure. The average depth of water table under the surface is 2 – 5 m but in hill-country it is located in 8 – 10 m depth. Water table level depends on mainly the precipitation. It is essential for agriculture. Human activities have influence on water table level. Regularization of river ways, draining and mining activities reduce its level but irrigation increases it. Water table connects to the surface and precipitation so it can be polluted easily and after that it is not suitable for human consumption. Contents of dissolved minerals and organic materials of water table depend on composition of ground and fauna. Classification of extraneous materials in water: dissolved gases, dissolved minerals, organic materials, floating materials.

This property of sole that water can flow in its pores is very important concerning transportation of pollution. Water table pollution is result of human and mineral materials in it. Due to accidents or industrial failure serious pollutions might occur. Because of water table flowing, pollution which goes into soil can be transported. It is used as drink water in the third world regularly which causes diseases and contagions.

Inland waters

Inland water hazard is frequent problem many countries. Primarily the effect of above-surface waters water table spills vast areas for long time so due to its huge quantity the soil is not able to imbibe it. Inland water is not a new phenomenon it was described in 18th century. All in all inland water is such a natural disaster. As a result of above average precipitation or melting of snow they do not have enough place so it spreads into flood basins, reservoirs or flat areas. Using proper control the caused damage can be reduced.


Bank-filtered waters

We classify waters, which can be exploited next to rivers mainly originated from rivers so called bank-filtered waters, as subsurface waters. Its crucial importance shows that water supply of several settlements (close to riverbanks) is based upon these bank-filtered waters.