Monday, November 18, 2019

The water is Life

Water is essential factor of life on Earth.
Without water there is no life and it has crucial importance for humans:
from point of hygiene, health care, and production

The blue planet:

Water of the EarthEarth is called "blue planet" intentionally because 70.9 % of its surface is covered by water on the average till 1000 m depth. This enormous quantity (1.32 billion km3) is completed by water in atmosphere and subsurface water.

In compare with Earth's cubage subsurface water is merely 0.13 % but it has great significance concerning life and creating natural mineral water.


Origin of water

Water Cycle

Creation of mineral water is an extraordinary complicated process.

Geological circumstances have primary role but physical biological and chemical factors has influence on forming subsurface waters. Mineral water might be classified by reason of composition, characteristic, appearance, origin and several other factors which define its forming.


Mineral water

Origin of mineral waters

Defining the natural mineral water as expression:

All natural mineral water is subsurface water but not all subsurface water is natural mineral water.

Glass of mineral waterNatural mineral water is priceless, healthy, by virtue of its origin it is clear, free from pollution, human intrusion, natural food product. Point of dietary as well as human body's life functions it consist of minerals, macro and micro elements in favourable quantity. The water quality has to meet strict demands in order to be named natural mineral water. 

Only that water can be natural mineral water which

  • originates from protected water giving layer,
  • originally clean, free from impurity,
  • its composition is known and permanent,
  • its components can be found in definite quantity,
  • due to its mineral and trace element content it has fortunate health effect,
  • it has to meet strict biological demands,
  • apart from few physical processes it mustn't be treated,
  • extraneous materials – except carbon-dioxide – mustn't be given to the water,
  • it must be bottled the place of well in order to preserve its original composition and purity.


Subsurface waters

Subsurface water: water, which is located under the surface in saturated zone and has direct contact with soil or subsoil.

Aquifer layers: subsurface stone layer or stone layers from other geological formations. Their perviousness water permeability renders significant flowing of subsurface water possible or exploits meaningful quantity of subsurface waters.

Subsurface water

Subsurface water body: it is a part of subsurface water which is surrounded by aquifers. Subsurface waters form hidden but remarkably important part of water circulation. Those areas, which geological structures are good, are suitable for storing subsurface waters. Quantity, environmental and use-value of subsurface waters in certain regions have outstanding importance. Huge thickness of basin sediments and karst formation of mountains ensure excellent water output from under the surface. Using their advantageous conditions exploitation of subsurface waters is expressive.


Swallow subsurface waters

Dampness of soil:

Water which fills gaps in sole particles, located in three-phase-zone between surface and water table, is named dampness of soil. Water, percolates from the surface, sticks sole particles pellicularly and doesn’t go deeper (capillary force) despite gravity. Sole air fill gaps among sole particles in this level (three phase system: stone particle, sole air, dampness of soil)

Water table:

Ground WaterWater table is that part of sweet water resources which is located above the upper impermeable layer. It comes from surface waters such as precipitation, rivers, lakes percolates down and fills gaps in sole particles. We call the upper level of these water mass as water table level. Its level depends on precipitation, temperature and pressure. The average depth of water table under the surface is 2 – 5 m but in hill-country it is located in 8 – 10 m depth. Water table level depends on mainly the precipitation. It is essential for agriculture. Human activities have influence on water table level. Regularization of river ways, draining and mining activities reduce its level but irrigation increases it. Water table connects to the surface and precipitation so it can be polluted easily and after that it is not suitable for human consumption. Contents of dissolved minerals and organic materials of water table depend on composition of ground and fauna. Classification of extraneous materials in water: dissolved gases, dissolved minerals, organic materials, floating materials.


Abyssal subsurface waters

Layer waters:

Layer-waters are located under water table. Most part of subsurface water deposit is layer water. Layer-water is a kind of subsurface water which is located in porous stones.

Deep groundwater Layer water from basin-like aquifers because of weighing pressure goes to the surface. Resupply of layer water is slower than water table in addition it is located deeper geologically protected environment so it can get polluted less. Layer waters are explored by wells. Layer-waters can be utilized as drink water but sometimes it consists of such natural originated minerals that can impede the use such as arsenic, iron. If it doesn’t contain harmful materials we could produce from it the best quality mineral water. Whereas resupply of layer water is extremely slow we must pay attention that the intense water exploit doesn’t consume the water deposit.  


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Water is essential factor of life on Earth. 
Without water there is no life and it has crucial importance for humans: 
from point of hygiene, health care, and production

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