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Monday, November 18, 2019

Abyssal subsurface waters

Layer waters:

Layer-waters are located under water table. Most part of subsurface water deposit is layer water. Layer-water is a kind of subsurface water which is located in porous stones.

Deep groundwater Layer water from basin-like aquifers because of weighing pressure goes to the surface. Resupply of layer water is slower than water table in addition it is located deeper geologically protected environment so it can get polluted less. Layer waters are explored by wells. Layer-waters can be utilized as drink water but sometimes it consists of such natural originated minerals that can impede the use such as arsenic, iron. If it doesn’t contain harmful materials we could produce from it the best quality mineral water. Whereas resupply of layer water is extremely slow we must pay attention that the intense water exploit doesn’t consume the water deposit.  

 
Fissure- or lithoclase water:

Water, which is located in fissures and lithoclases, is named fissure water. One type of fissure water (karst water) is located in limestone cavities. Percolating karst water into deep layers begins from fissures in limestone areas and it can wash out enormous cave systems. Significant quantity water accumulates in level of limestone areas which has important role in water supply.
 

Karst waters:

Karst waterWe distinguish two different types. In case of open karst water it has direct connection to precipitation and surface waters which supply the karst water basis whereas cover rock layers of karst water are not impervious. In case of covered karst water the impervious cover rocks impede precipitation and surface waters to get into karst water basis.

Moving and accumulating karst water from surface, in limestone ranges, gets across into mountain fissures and levels via partly percolation and partly sumps. The accumulating karst water comes to surface on valley sides as permanent or periodical karst springs. They have abundant water output. It fills contiguous water galleries in vast areas in limestone ranges.

Karst water is type of subsurface water which is located in karst development stone layers.  Homogenous karst water level, in enormous limestone mass of karst ranges, is formed which supplies karst springs in foot and edge of mountains.

By dint of its natural clearness karst water has great value. The exploited water from karst water basis can be suitable for human consumption directly


Thermal waters:

Thermal waterThe deeper the water arrives the higher its temperature. Waters, those are warmer than its surroundings’ annual average temperature, are called thermal waters.
We look upon as thermal waters which subsurface waters are warmer than 30 °C. The springs, which break up to surface along structural lines (faults, fractures, grabens), temperature might be higher. Due to geothermal gradient that is bigger than world average (1 °C/33m) Central–Europe is very rich in thermal waters. Break up waters from big depth are frequent here. Water giving layers in depth forms water basis of several spa.

Subsurface waters take a long way in depth and dissolve many kinds of minerals and take them away. Most of the waters have favourable composition and are recognized as medicinal water, mineral water so they are used for balneological purpose, drinking cure or bottling. Curative waters are medicinal waters. The most famous and oldest spas are in Hungary.
 

Medicinal water:

Don’t confuse natural mineral waters with medicinal waters! Medicinal waters are mineral waters but they have clinically proofed curative effect. Those mineral waters might get medicinal water evaluation, because of physical attributes and chemical compositions they have certified curative effect.  Certainly composition of these waters basically differs from composition of natural mineral waters – so they have curative effects. Total mineral content of medicinal water is 20,000 – 30,000 mg/l. Medicinal water can be consumed at doctor’s orders in prescribed quantity.


Spring headSprings:

Subsurface waters break up to surface are named springs. Most springs are located where impermeable formations run to the surface. Water table and layer waters may come up to surface on border of such layers.

There are three types of springs, which are uprush of subsurface waters, form transition between subsurface and surface waters:

  1. Torrential springs: comes from sheer cliffs. They are abounding in water they have semi-static water output. Its subsoil is stony with poor vegetation. They can be found in limestone ranges very often.
  2. Uprush springs: they are such basin-like springs which are filled with water from underneath or from sideways. They usually have medium water output. Their beds are sandy, silty it is rich in organic debris accumulations or vegetation.
  3. Marsh springs: they don’t uprush in a specific place but they percolate trough more or less thick sole layers so the area of spring becomes swampy or marshy. Their water output is inconsiderable. Their beds are rich in vegetation, rich in accumulating organic debris, often peaty at spring marsh.

 

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